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Sistemazioni fluviali e delle coste
INGEGNERIA NATURALISTICA



AN INNOVATIVE
MARINE ENERGY PRODUCTION
AND PROTECTION OF THE COASTS
BY FLOATING TURBINES REEFS




Innovation and Research
Patent n° 1411057

Ing Manlio Palmarocchi
Ing. Pierfranco Ventura


Roma 2015


BENEFITS

Lines of turbines floating just under the sea surface, 4÷500 meters far from the coast, erected like  teeth of a comb, reduce the surface streams velocity, producing at the same time power and   accumulation on the coast of the conveyed sand (beach nourishment).   
  It is proposed to   amend the   traditional coast protection through  a reef  of floating turbines
   The turbine is constituted by   blades attached   to a floating body  in order to be indifferent i n the water   and turn   to the   minimum   current,   with an   yield   much greater  than  wind.
  Turbines ,  or   impellers ,  are pivoted   gyroscopically   on stems  founded  on   prefabricated   cylindrical   wells   vibrofixed  in order to  self- ballast  with sand .
  The proposal is relevant to Innovation   and Research   in   real scale   test, first on the efficiency   of  turbines , second  to be use   themselves like a reef in order to produce energy and protect the coast; defininig  a marine   band   in front of the   coast .

You get   the following benefits :

Conversion of   costs   for  beach  nourishment   and emerging cliffs  and relative  periodic maintenance in    investments   relevant  the  turbines for   power production,   amortizable  already   with  5  GWh/km  an  year.
  Efficiency and   service life   of the floating turbines ,  for the reasons   said above , it is  likely   high   and   rapidly   controllable   with   a   search   on a few   prototypes .

   It should be noted in this regard that an increase in the area of the blades , with little expense, you can greatly increase the production of marine energy (> 10 GWh/km/year), making the impellers mesobuoyants the cheapest among the renewable sources (wind and sun), up to competitiveness by natural gas production.

  Containment   of CO 2 production   and   sand accumulation   on the coast   to embank   the rise of the   sea level   forecasted   by the UN   ( IPCC)  exceed one meter   within the next   decades (climated change) .
   The turbines   are located  in a zone where  the stationary   energy of the offshore wave motion (vertical pulsating)  is transformed   in  horizontal inshore currents; such a zone is relatively calm in any case  the pile   support   is designed against the storms.
  Replanting   of   seagrass   with poseidonia development   and   fish    restocking    along a zone   of   300   to 500   m   from the beach are   protected by   artificial barriers   ( can also be used  for   the cultivation of   mussels )  and similar   to coral reefs .
  At sea surface  level   is visible   only the   series of   illuminated   red  heads   of the turbines ,  connected like    barriers   where   energy is produced, defining a  " no fishing  zone"  interrupted only   in the passages   devoted   to recreational navigation.
   Elimination of   withdrawals   of sand    on the  off seabed       for   artificial   nourishment .
   Elimination   of the cliffs   emerging   and reloads   with boulders   allowing   the upgrading   of the landscape ,  avoiding   the   algae    eutrophication   and   promoting   clean-up .
   The turbines   also work    in   case of an earthquake   as they are   treated as   simple   oscillators   seismic ,  have   in fact   a mass   at the top   indifferent in the water   and   therefore   a zero period   far from   resonance   in the  marine spectrum .
  Increased security   through   the lights permanently   barriers   that acts as a   deterrent ,   the barrier   defends   swimmers .
 Development of   new jobs   in the fields   of electrical ,  marine works , maintenance, mussels   aquaculture , beach  safety .



PROPOSAL

The patent   for the production of   marine energy   coupled   coastal protection ,  as   is   proposed   European   Innovation and Research   Ing . Manlio   Palmarocchi   ( ex  ENI   and   EUBIA   European   Bioenergy   Industries Association )  and   Pierfranco   Ventura   (ex   Dip .  Ing . Structural and Geotechnical   Univ .  wisdom) ,  as part   of the developments   promoted by   STES .
     In the project   we highlight the   benefits   and limits   of the  current art  state    of  the  Wave Energy   Converters   ( WEC) ; the systems of   coastal protection   and economic returns    of   a million   euro     limited   to   the first prototypes ,  on a seabed of   low consistency   to 6   m below the   sea level.
     The cost of the 100÷130 turbines/km in staggered barriers for coast defense is lower of the traditional  nourishment and submerged cliff, and is depreciable by electricity production without clean-up or health costs. The barriers are not far from the marine currents trigger or neutral zone without storm surges, for which are subject to low maintenance.
     The   call   to   business partners Profit & No Profit   on " Prevention of  coast   erosion "  will lead   initially   to prototype   in   real size   to calibrate   the efficiency   of the impellers   and then   an extension   of the patent ,  proven   by the European Commission ,  with the establishment   of   a   Research/Industrial Center   in    marine energy   to   a " soft protection"  coastlines   with   innovative   barriers   of turbines   in   .   " blue energy  reef ".
     The use   of renewable energy   from marine streams   is   proposed   mainly   to support   economically   the   coastal defense   by containing   current expenditure ,  reconverting   in   new   green technologies ,  not   only   incurred   by   excessive   incentive .
      The protections   and   current   maintenance   have traditionally been focused   on   artificial   beach nourishment   with   sand   systematically   removed   from the   winter storms   that disrupt   even the bottom   breakwater   cliffs   emerging   close to the   beaches   and   stretches of coastline   adjacent   unprotected .
      The damage   and waste   are   very well known : it is urgent, therefore,  a  Conversion   of  Beach  Nourishment   in   Maritime Works  for   coastal protection ,  also and   especially in relation   to the rising   sea levels   due to  the  Climate Change .



DRAWING INDEX (see www. stesecoetica/oggi/coste)


FIG 1   LOCATION   OF  THE  BARRIERS  RELATED TO WAVE MOTION

FIG 2
  FLOATHING  GYROSCOPIC TURBINE ON PLINTO ONLY FOR PROTOTYPE  
            SEA BED MOVABLE TO SEARCH THE MAXIMUM CURRENTS
  

FIG 3   COSTS   ARTIFICIAL  BEACH NOURRISHEMENT AND  CLIFFS   EMERGING

FIG 4   COMPARISON   OF CLIFFS   /   BARRIERS   COSTS WITH   THE  SEA BED   DEPHT

FIG 5   BARRIER   WITH   TURBINES   FOUNDATIONS   VIBROFIXED AND SELFBALLAST
            AND  BONDED  TO   BASE  BY  FRINGES  FOR  DISSIPATING  SEA BED  CURRENTS  


FIG 6  CYCLIC   TENSILE TEST   ON   HEAVY   DISSIPATIVE FRINGE

SEE IN OGGI/ENERGIE


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